嚜選遛 Ana SayfaCumhuriyet Gazetesi Cuma Kitaplar覺T羹rk H羹manizmi - II : 38


TRK HMAN襤ZM襤 - II

PROF. DR. SUAT S襤NANOLU


22 Bk. A. Toynbee, A Study of History, uygarl覺klar覺n gelimesi ile ilgili b繹l羹m, 繹zellikle s. 182, (gelien uygarl覺klarla dumura urayan uygarl覺klar覺 kar覺lat覺rd覺覺) s. 211 ve s. 360.
23 Bk. A. Toynbee, A Study of History, s. 244.
24 Bk. A. Toynbee, Civilazation on Trial, s. 188 ve ss. 195-199, 繹zellikle s. 199.
25 K. J. Madaule, La Pens矇e historique de Tyonbee, A. Toynbee'nin The World and the West adl覺 eserinin Frans覺zca 癟evirisinde, s. 27-30. Bk. Toynbee, A Study of History, s. 245.
26 Isonomia vatandalara tan覺nan siyasal hak eitliidir. Bk. Herodotos III 80: Aksine, halk y繹netimi her eyden 繹nce adlar覺n en g羹zelini ta覺r: isonomia. Bk. ayr覺ca III 83 ve 142: 夷te ben iktidar覺 sizinle payla覺yorum, sizin i癟in eitlii (isonomia'y覺) ilan ediyorum ve V 37.
27 Parrhesia s繹z 繹zg羹rl羹羹d羹r. Euripides bu kavram覺 s覺k s覺k s繹z konusu eder: Ion 672, Phoin. 391, Hipp. 422 vb. Bk. ayr覺ca Platon, Devlet VIII 557 b, Yasalar III 694 b, VII 806 d, vb.
28 Bk. A. Toynbee, A Study of History, s. 244.
29 Bk. A. Toynbee, A Study of History, s. 230 vd.
30 Bk. A. Toynbee, A Study of History, s. 418.
31. Bk. Herodotos IX 79.
32 Bk. Thukydides V 84-115; k. J. de Romilly, Thucydide, aet l'Imp矇rialisme ath矇nien, Les Belles Lettres, Paris 1951, Le dialogue de M矇los b繹l羹m羹, ss. 230-259, 繹zellikle ss. 257-259. Euripides Melos sorununa Troyal覺 Kad覺nlar'da dokunur, m覺ss. 95-97. Bu m覺sralar覺n yorumu 羹zerine k. Suat Sinanolu, Ankara niversitesi Dil ve Tarih-Corafya Fak. dergisi X 1-2 (1952), ss. 98-99.
(33) Bk. Demosthenes, elenk 羹zerine nutuk 199.
(34) K. Gibb, Modern Trends in Islam, ss. 64-65, 繹zellikle u yarg覺, s. 64: There is a deeply rooted conflict between medieval and modern ideas of the nature of knowledge. Te old Islamic view of knowledge was not a reaching-out to the unknown but a mechanical process of amassing the 'known'. The known was not conceived of as changing end expanding but as 'given' and eternal色
(35) Bk. B. Croce, Saggio sullo Hegel, s. 41 (Cio che 癡 vivo e ci簷 che 癡 morto della filosofia di Hegel, ss. 1-143).
(36) Gibb bu s繹ylenileni dorulamaktad覺r, bk. Modern Trends in Islam, ss. 124-125: The point of importance for us is that in and through theology Islam came to terms with scientific methods and modes of thought. This was a first and essential step. It delivered Islamic thought from the dangers inherent in the Romantic, that is the purely intuitive or imaginative, approach to the problem of existence and the universe. But there the development of orthodox thinking stopped, and there the process of petrification set in. Yet the solvent lay within the grasp of Muslim thinkers, if only they had perceived its significance and had come to terms with it as well. That solvent was the historical method and mode of thought
But, in proportion as it emancipated itself from theological control, it roused the suspicions and even the hostility of the theologians. Moreover, the historians never succeeded in overcoming the irrational and imaginative elements which were inherent in the character of their sources and materials or the theological influences deriving from the religious sciences. u halde eletirici ve ak覺lc覺 y繹ntem Yunanistan'dan baka bir yerde doamazd覺; bu y繹ntem, ancak eletirici ve ak覺lc覺 bir zihin yap覺s覺n覺n egemen olduu maddi bir evrende oluabilirdi.
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